Sunday, April 1, 2012

AWT


AWT
--
Abstract Window Toolkit
     - it contains numerous classes and methods that allow you
     to create and manage windows.
     - main purpose of the AWT is to support applet windows
     - package
     java.awt.*
     java.awt.event.*

     Event:
     -----
     state change in a source

     source:
     -------
     it is an object that generates an event.

     Listener:
     -------
     is an object that is notified when an event occurs.

     method:
     --------
     public void addTypeListener(TypeEvent object)

     Components of AWT:
          -----------------------
          1)Button
          2)Label
          3)TextField
          4)TextArea
          5)Choice
          6)List
          7)Checkbox
          8)Menu



     Event Class:
     --------------
     1)ActionEvent - button,list,menu
     2)AdjustmentEvent - scrollbar
     3)ItemEvent - checkbox,list
     4)KeyEvent - keyboard
     5)MouseEvent - mouse

Adding and Removing Controls
-----------------------------------
To include a control in a window, we must add it to the window.
syntax:
          Component add(Component compObj)

          Here, compObj is an instance of the control that we want to add.  A reference to compObj is returned.  Once a control has been added, it will automatically be visible whenever its parent window is displayed.

          void remove(Component obj)
          Here, obj is a reference to the control we want to remove.  we  can remove all controls by calling removeAll().
 Label:
 ------
     constructors:
     --------------
     Label();
     Label(String);
     Label(String,int how);
     The first version creates a blank label.  The second version creates a label that contains the string specified by str.  This string is left justified.  The third version creates a label that contains the string specified by str using the alignment specified by how.  The value of how must be one of these three constants:
          Label.LEFT,Label.RIGHT,Label.CENTER.

          method
          -----
          void setText(String str)  - str specifies the new label.
          String getText() - the current label is returned.
we can set the alignment of the string within the label by calling setAlignment().
void setAlignment(int how)
To obtain the current alignment, call getAlignment().
int getAlignment()

ex:
import java.awt.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=LabelDemo width=300 height=300></applet>
public class LabelDemo extends Applet
{
          public void init(){
                   Label one=new Label("One");
                   Label two=new Label("Two");
                   Label three=new Label("Three");
                   //add labels to applet window
                   add(one);
                   add(two);
                   add(three);

          }
}
Using Buttons
--------------

Button
-------
     Constructors:
     --------------
     Button();
          creates an empty button.
     Button(String str);
     this contains str as a label.

     Methods:
     ----------
void setLabel(String str); -becomes the new label for the button.
String  getLabel(); - retrieve its label by calling getLabel().

Handling Buttons
----------------
Each listener implements the ActionListener interface.  The interface defines the actionPerformed() method, which is called when an event occurs.
The label is obtained by calling the getActionCommand() method on the ActionEvent object passes to actionPerformed().


     Listener:
     --------
     1)ActionListener
     public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae)
     {
     statements;
     }

     getActionCommand() - to know the label of the button("Ok")
     getSource(); - to know the variable name of the button(b1,b2)
ex:

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=ButtonDemo width=300 height=300></applet>
public class ButtonDemo extends Applet implements ActionListener
{
          String msg="";
          Button b1,b2,b3;
          public void init()
{
                   b1=new Button("Yes");
                   b2=new Button("No");
                   b3=new Button("Undecided");

                   add(b1);
                   add(b2);
                   add(b3);

                   b1.addActionListener(this);
                   b2.addActionListener(this);
                   b3.addActionListener(this);

          }
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae)
{
                   String str=ae.getActionCommand();
                   if(str.equals("Yes"))
                   msg="You pressed Yes.";

          else if(str.equals("No"))
                   msg="You pressed No";
          else
                   msg="You pressed Undecided.";
                   repaint();
          }
          public void paint(Graphics g){
                   g.drawString(msg,5,100);
          }
}


Using a TextField
----------------
TextField() - creates a default text field.
TextField(int numChars)
          Creates a textfield that is numChars characters wide.
TextField(String str)
          initializes the text field with the string contained in str.
TextField(String str,int numChars)
                   initializes the text field and sets its width.

String getText()  - The string currently contained in the text field
void setText(String str)           - To set the Text
str is the new string

String getSelectedText() - returns the selected text.
void select(int startIndex,int endIndex)      -        selects the characters
beginning at startIndex and ending at endIndex-1.

boolean isEditable()
- returns true if the text may be changed and false if not.
void setEditable(boolean canEdit)
- if canEdit is true, the text may be changed.  If it is false, the text
cannot be altered.

void setEchoChar(char ch)
boolean echoCharIsSet()
char getEchoChar()

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=TextFieldDemo width=200 height=200></applet>
public class TextFieldDemo extends Applet implements ActionListener{
          TextField name,pass;
          public void init(){
          Label name1=new Label("Name :",Label.RIGHT);
          Label pass1=new Label("Password :",Label.RIGHT);
          name=new TextField(12);
          pass=new TextField(8);
          pass.setEchoChar('?');

          add(name1);
          add(name);
          add(pass1);
          add(pass);

          name.addActionListener(this);
          pass.addActionListener(this);
}
public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae){
          repaint();
}
public void paint(Graphics g){
          g.drawString("Name:"+name.getText(),6,60);
          g.drawString("Selected Text in name :"+name.getSelectedText(),6,80);
          g.drawString("Password:"+pass.getText(),6,100);
}
}
exercise:
pro1:
import java.awt.*;
import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
//<applet code=passw.class width=200 height=200></applet>
public class passw extends Applet implements ActionListener
{
          TextField t1,t2;
          public void init(){
                   t1=new TextField(30);
                   add(t1);
                   t2=new TextField(30);
                   add(t2);
                   t1.setEchoChar('@');
                   t1.addActionListener(this);
          }
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent a)
          {
                   if(a.getSource()==t1)
                             t2.setText(t1.getText());
          }
}
prg:2
import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
/*<applet code=applet1.class width=100 height=200></applet>*/
public class applet1 extends Applet implements ActionListener
{
          TextField text1;
          Button b1;
          public void init()
          {
                   text1=new TextField(25);
                   add(text1);
                   b1=new Button("Click me");
                   add(b1);
                   b1.addActionListener(this);
          }
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e)
          {
                   String msg=new String("Hello Friends");
                   if(e.getSource()==b1)
                             text1.setText(msg);
          }
}


     Checkbox:
     ---------
     Constructors:
     -------------
     Checkbox();
     label is initially blank.  The state of the check box is unchecked.
     Checkbox(String str);
                   create a checkbox whose label is specified by str.      The state of the check box is unchecked.
     Checkbox(String,boolean on);
      Allows to set the initial state of the check box .  If on is true, the check box is initially checked;otherwise, it is cleared.
     Checkbox(String,boolean on,CheckboxGroup cbg);
     Checkbox(String,CheckboxGroup cbg,boolean on);

     Methods:
     ------
     boolean getState(); - Current state of a check box
     void setState(boolean); - To set its state
     String getLabel();
     void setLabel(String str);
Handling Check Boxes
=====================
Each listener implements the ItemListener interface.  That interface defines the itemStateChanged() method.
     ItemListener:
     ------------
     void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent ie)
     {
     statements;
     }
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=CheckboxDemo width=300 height=300></applet>
public class CheckboxDemo extends Applet implements ItemListener{
          String msg="";
          Checkbox c1,c2,c3,c4;
          public void init(){
          c1=new Checkbox("Window 98",true);
          c2=new Checkbox("Windows NT");
          c3=new Checkbox("Solaris");
          c4=new Checkbox("Macos");
                   add(c1);
                   add(c2);
                   add(c3);
                   add(c4);

                   c1.addItemListener(this);
                   c2.addItemListener(this);
                   c3.addItemListener(this);
                   c4.addItemListener(this);
          }
          public void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent ie){
                   repaint();
          }
          public void paint(Graphics g){
                   msg="Current State : ";
                   g.drawString(msg,6,70);
                   msg="Windows 98: "+c1.getState();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,90);
                   msg="Windows NT: "+c2.getState();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,110);
                   msg="Solaris : "+c3.getState();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,130);
                   msg=":Macos :  "+c4.getState();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,150);

          }
}

CheckboxGroup
=============
one and only one check box in the group can be checked at any one time.  These check boxes are often called radio buttons.
method
------
Checkbox getSelectedCheckbox() - which check box in a group is currently selected.
void setSelectedCheckbox(Checkbox which)
          which is the check box that we want to be selected.
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=CBGroup width=300 height=300></applet>
public class CBGroup extends Applet implements ItemListener{
          String msg="";
          Checkbox c1,c2,c3,c4;
          CheckboxGroup cbg;
          public void init(){
                   cbg=new CheckboxGroup();
          c1=new Checkbox("Window 98",cbg,true);
          c2=new Checkbox("Windows NT",cbg,false);
          c3=new Checkbox("Solaris",cbg,false);
          c4=new Checkbox("Macos",cbg,false);
                   add(c1);
                   add(c2);
                   add(c3);
                   add(c4);

                   c1.addItemListener(this);
                   c2.addItemListener(this);
                   c3.addItemListener(this);
                   c4.addItemListener(this);
          }
          public void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent ie){
                   repaint();
          }
          public void paint(Graphics g){
                   msg="Current Selection : ";
                   msg+=cbg.getSelectedCheckbox().getLabel();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,70);
          }
}

Choice Controls
===============
The Chocie class is used to create a  pop-up list  of items from which the user may choose.
method
========
void addItem(String name)
void add(String name)
Here, name is the name of the item being added.  Items are added to the list in the order in which calls to add() or addItem() occur.

String getSelectedItem()
which item is currently selected.
int getSelectedIndex() - returns the index of the item.  The first item is at index 0.  By default, the first item added to the list is selected.

int getItemCount()         To obtain the number of items in the list
void select(int index)
void select(String name)

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=ChoiceDemo width=300 height=300></applet>
public class ChoiceDemo extends Applet implements ItemListener{
          Choice os,browser;
          String msg="";
          public void init()
          {
                   os=new Choice();
                   browser=new Choice();

                   //add items to os list
                   os.add("Windows 98");
                   os.add("Windows NT");
                   os.add("Unix");
                   os.add("Linux");

                   //add items to broswer list
                   browser.add("Netscape 1.1");
                   browser.add("Netscape 2.x");
                   browser.add("Netscape 3.x");
                   browser.add("Netscape 4.x");
                   browser.add("Internet Explorer 2.0");
                   browser.add("Internet Explorer 3.0");
                   browser.add("Internet Explorer 4.0");

                   browser.select("Netscape 3.x");

                   //add choice lists to window
                   add(os);
                   add(browser);

                   //register to receive item events
                   os.addItemListener(this);
                   browser.addItemListener(this);
          }
          public void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent ie){
                   repaint();
          }
          //Display current selections.
          public void paint(Graphics g){
                   msg="Current OS :";
                   msg+=os.getSelectedItem();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,120);
                   msg="Current  Browser:";
                   msg+=browser.getSelectedItem();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,140);
          }
}

List:
-----
Multiple-choice, scrolling selection list.
     Constructors:
     ------------
     List();
     Allows only one item to be selected at any one time.
     List(int numRows);
     numRows specifies the number of entries in the list that will always be visible.
     List(int numRows,boolean multipleSelect);
     if multipleSelect is true, then the user may select two or more items at a time.

     Methods:
     -------
     add(String name);
     Here name is the name of the item added to the list.  This form adds items to the end of the list.
     add(String name,int index);
     adds the item at the index specified by index. indexing begins at zero.
     we can specify  -1 to add the item to the end of the list.

String getSelectedItem();
returns a string containing the name of the item.  If more than one item is selected or if no selection has yet been made, null is returned.
int getSelectedIndex(); - returns  the index of the item.

     int getItemCount();
//Demonstrate Lists.
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=ListDemo wisth=300 height=300></applet>
public class ListDemo extends Applet implements ActionListener{
                   List os,browser;
                   String msg="";
                   public void init()
                   {
                             os=new List(4,true);
                             browser=new List(4,false);

                             //add items to os list
                             os.add("Windows 98");
                             os.add("Windows NT");
                             os.add("Unix");
                             os.add("Linux");

                             //add items to broswer list
                             browser.add("Netscape 1.1");
                             browser.add("Netscape 2.x");
                             browser.add("Netscape 3.x");
                             browser.add("Netscape 4.x");
                             browser.add("Internet Explorer 2.0");
                             browser.add("Internet Explorer 3.0");
                             browser.add("Internet Explorer 4.0");

                             browser.select(2);

                             //add choice lists to window
                             add(os);
                             add(browser);

                             //register to receive item events
                             os.addActionListener(this);
                             browser.addActionListener(this);
                   }
                   public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae){
                             repaint();
                   }
                   //Display current selections.
                   public void paint(Graphics g){
                             int idx[];
                             msg="Current OS :";
                             idx=os.getSelectedIndexes();
                             for(int i=0;i<idx.length;i++)
                             msg+=os.getItem(idx[i])+" ";
                             g.drawString(msg,6,120);
                             msg="Current  Browser:";
                             msg+=browser.getSelectedItem();
                             g.drawString(msg,6,140);
                   }
          }






     TextField:
     -----------
     constructors:
     ---------------
     TextField();
     TextField(int no. of characters);
     TextField(String);
     TextField(String,int no. of characters);

     Methods:
     ---------
     getText();
     setText(String);
     select(int startindex,int endindex);
     getSelectedText();
     setEditable(boolean);
     isEditable();
     setEchoChar(char);
     echoCharIsSet();
     getEchoChar();




     Choice:
     ------
     Constructors:
     ------------
     Choice();

     To add elements to choice list:
     -------------------------------
     addItem(String);
     add(String);

     Methods:
     -------
     String getSelectedItem();
     int getSelectedIndex();
     int getItemCount();
     void select(int index);
     void select(String);
     void getItem(int index);




     Scrollbar:
     -----------
     constructors:
     ------------
     Scrollbar();
     Scrollbar(int style);
     Scrollbar(int style,int initial value,int thumbsize,int min,int max);

     style:
     -----
     Scrollbar.HORIZONTAL
     Scrollbar.VERTICAL

     METHODS:
     --------------
     void setValues(int initialvalue,int thumbsize,int min,int max);
     int getValue();
     void setValue(int newvalue);
     int getMinimum();
     int getMaximum();
     void setUnitIncrement(int value);
     void setBlockIncrement(int value);


     KeyEvent Class:
     ---------------
     types of keyEvent:
     --------------
     KEY_PRESSED
     KEY_RELEASED
     KEY_TYPED


     OTHER KEY Constants:
     --------------------
     VK_0 through VK_9
     VK_A through VK_Z

     VK_ENTER
     VK_ESCAPE
     VK_CANCEL
     VK_UP
     VK_DOWN
     VK_LEFT
     VK_RIGHT
     VK_PAGEDOWN
     VK_PAGEUP
     VK_SHIFT
     VK_ALT
     VK_CONTROL

     VK -Virtual Key code
         independent of any modifiers such as Ctrl,Alt and shift

    Methods:
    ---------
    char getKeyChar();
    int getKeyCode();


    KeyListener:
    --------------
    void keyPressed(KeyEvent ke)
    void keyReleased(KeyEvent ke)
    void keyTyped(KeyEvent ke)


     Frame:
     ------
     * it is a new window

     Constructors:
     ------------
     Frame();
     Frame(String title);

     Hiding and showing a window:
     ----------------------
     setVisible(boolean visibleflag);

     Setting window's Title:
     --------------
     setTitle(String new title);

     To hide a window:
     ----------
     setVisible(false);

     To close a window
     -------------------
     System.exit(0);


     To set the size
     ---------------
     setSize(int,int);


     Layout:
     ------
     To arranging the AWT components

     Layout is set by the following method
     void setLayout(LayoutManager layoutobject);

     Types:
     ------
     Flow Layout  (Left top right bottom)
     Border Layout  (N,E,S,W,C)
     Grid Layout   (Row & Column manner)
     GridBag  (Always in the screen's center)
     Panel   (to group the components)



     Flow Layout:
     -------------
     constructors:
     -----------
     FlowLayout();
     FlowLayout(int how);
     FlowLayout(int how,int horizontal,int Vertical);

     how:
     ----
     FlowLayout.LEFT
     FlowLayout.CENTER
     FlowLayout.RIGHT


Border Layout:
-----------------------
constructors:
--------------
BorderLayout();
BorderLayout(int horz,int vert);

To add the component in the Border Layout:
----------------------------------------------------------
void add(Component object,object region);
Region:
--------
BorderLayout.CENTER
BorderLayout.EAST
BorderLayout.NORTH
BorderLayout.SOUTH
BorderLayout.WEST

Insets:
-------
used to leave a small amount of space between the container that holds your
components and the window that contains it.

constructor:
--------------
Insets(int top,int left,int bottom,int right);

Method:
--------
Insets getInsets();

Grid Layout:
----------------
constructors:
----------------
GridLayout();
GridLayout(int no.of rows,int no. of columns);
GridLayout(int no.of rows,int no. of columns,int hor,in vert);


CardLayout:
-----------------
constructor:
-------------
CardLayout();
CardLayout(int horz,int vert);

Cards are added into panel by the following method:

void add(Component panelobject,objectname);

Methods:
---------
void first(Container deck);
void last(Container deck);
void next(Container deck);
void previous(Container deck);
void show(Container deck,String cardname);

 TextArea:
     ---------
     constructors:
     ----------

     TextArea();
     TextArea(int num. of lines,int no. of characters);
     TextArea(String);
     TextArea(String,int no. of lines,int no. of characters);
     TextArea(String,int no. of lines,int no. of characters,int scrollbars);



     SCROLLBARS_BOTH
     SCROLLBARS_NONE
     SCROLLBARS_HORIZONTAL_ONLY
     SCROLLBARS_VERTICAL_ONLY

     Methods:
     -------
     getText();
     setText(String);
     getSelectedText();
     select(int start index,int end index);
     setEditable(boolean);
     append(String);
     insert(String,int index);
     replaceRange(String str,int startindex,int endindex);



MenuBar and Menu:
---------------
Constructors of Menu:
--------------------
Menu();
Menu(String optionname);
Menu(String optionname,boolean removable);

Constructors of MenuItem:
--------------------------
MenuItem();
MenuItem(String itemname);
MenuItem(String itemname,MenuShortcut keyAccel);

Menuitem can be disable or enabled by
----------
void setEnabled(boolean enabledflag);


name of the menuitem can be changed by
-------------------------------
void setLabel(String newname);
String getLabel();

add(menuitem);
add(menu);


To add the Menubar into the Frame
----------------------------------
setMenubar(menubar);


FileDialog:
-----------
* built in dialog box
Constructors:
-----------
FileDialog(Frame parent,String boxname);
FileDialog(Frame parent,String boxname,int how);
FileDialog(Frame parent);


how:
----
FileDialog.LOAD(To read)
FileDialog.SAVE(To write)

Methods:
--------
String getDirectory();
String getFile();




DialogBox:
-----------
* Used to hold a set of related controls.
* it can be modal or modeless.
modal - other parts of program is not active and not accessible
modeless - other parts of program is active and accessible

constructors:
-----------
Dialog(Frame parent,boolean mode);
Dialog(Frame parent,String title,boolean mode);

To close a dialog box:
---------------------
dispose(); - it frees all system resources associated with the
dialog box window.







Applet
-----
* it is a window to hold the awt components
* life cycle
init
start
paint
stop
destroy

<applet
code ="program name"
height="200"
width="300"
> 
</applet>


to run
--------
appletviewer filename.java


MouseListener
----------------
Entered
Exited
Pressed
Released
Clicked

MouseMotionListener
-------------------
MouseMoved
MouseDragged



 Using  a TextArea
===============
TextArea()
TextArea(int numLines,int numChars)
TextArea(String str)
TextArea(String str,int numLines,int numChars)
TextArea(String str,int numLines,int numCharas,int sBars)
numLines - specifies the height
numChars - specifies the width
sBars -Scrollbars
SCROLLBARS_BOTH
SCROLLBARS_VERTICAL_ONLY
SCROLLBARS_HORIZONTAL_ONLY
SCROLLBARS_NONE


import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=TextAreaDemo width=200 height=200></applet>
public class TextAreaDemo extends Applet{
          public void init()
          {
                   String val="That's why TextPad is so popular. "+"\nWhether you simply need a powerful replacement for Notepad,"+"\n a tool for editing your web pages, or "+"\na programming IDE, TextPad does what you want"+"\n, the way you would expect.";

                   TextArea text=new TextArea(val,10,50);
                   add(text);
          }
}




Managing  Scroll Bars
------------------------
Scrollbar()
          Create a vertical scroll bar.
Scrollbar(int style)
Scrollbar(int style,int initialValue,int thumbSize,int min,int max)
If style is
          Scrollbar.VERTICAL
          Scrollbar.HORIZONTAL
void setValues(int initialValue,int thumbSize,int min,int max)

To obtain the current value of the scrollbar, call
int getValue(). It returns the current setting.

To set the current value
          void setValue(int newValue)

int getMinimum()
int getMaximum()
They returns the requested quantity.

void setUnitIncrement(int newIncr)
void setBlockIncrement(int newIncr)

Handling Scroll Bars
------------------------
implement the AdjustmentListener interface.
The AdjustmentListener interface has only one method, adjustmentValueChanged:
          void adjustmentValueChanged(AdjustmentEvent e)


getAdjustmentType() method used to determine the type of the adjustment.

Adjustable getAdjustable()      Get the adjustable object where this event originated.

Scroll.java
import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
/*
<APPLET
CODE=scroll.class
WIDTH=400
HEIGHT=100
> 
</APPLET>
*/
public class scroll extends Applet implements AdjustmentListener
{
          TextField text1;
          Scrollbar hscroll,vscroll;
          public void init()
          {
                   hscroll=new Scrollbar(Scrollbar.HORIZONTAL,10,10,1,200);
                   add(hscroll);
                   hscroll.addAdjustmentListener(this);
                   text1=new TextField(25);
                   add(text1);
                   vscroll=new Scrollbar(Scrollbar.VERTICAL,1,20,1,200);
                   add(vscroll);
                   vscroll.addAdjustmentListener(this);
          }
          public void adjustmentValueChanged(AdjustmentEvent e)
          {
                   if(e.getAdjustable()==hscroll||e.getAdjustable()==vscroll)
                   {
                             text1.setText("Horizontal:"+hscroll.getValue()+" Vertical:"+vscroll.getValue());
                   }
          }
}



import java.awt.*;
import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
//<applet code=SBDemo width=200 height=200></applet>
public class SBDemo extends Applet implements AdjustmentListener,MouseMotionListener{
          String msg="";
          Scrollbar vertSB,horzSB;
          public void init()
          {
                   //int width=Integer.parseInt(getParameter("width"));
          //        int height=Integer.parseInt(getParameter("height"));

                   vertSB=new Scrollbar(Scrollbar.VERTICAL,0,1,0,200);
                   horzSB=new Scrollbar(Scrollbar.HORIZONTAL,0,1,0,200);

                   add(vertSB);
                   add(horzSB);

                   //register to receive adjustment events
                   vertSB.addAdjustmentListener(this);
                   horzSB.addAdjustmentListener(this);

                   addMouseMotionListener(this);
          }
          public void adjustmentValueChanged(AdjustmentEvent ae)
          {
                   repaint();
          }

          //Update scroll bars to reflect mouse dragging.
          public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent me)
          {
                   int x=me.getX();
                   int y=me.getY();
                   vertSB.setValue(y);
                   horzSB.setValue(x);
                   repaint();
          }
          //Necessary for MouseMotionListener
          public void mouseMoved(MouseEvent me)
          {}
          //Display current value of scroll bars.
          public void paint(Graphics g)
          {
                   msg="Vertical : "+vertSB.getValue();
                   msg+="Horizontal :"+horzSB.getValue();


                   g.drawString(msg,7,120);

                   //show current mouse drag position

                   g.drawString("*",horzSB.getValue(),vertSB.getValue());
          }
}

Using ScrollPanes
We want to scroll some text.
We want add a component to a scroll pane.

import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
//<applet code=spane.class width=200 height=200></applet>
public class spane extends Applet
{
          ScrollPane sp;
          TextField t1;
          public void init()
          {
                   sp=new ScrollPane();
                   t1=new TextField("Hello from  Java!");
                   sp.add(t1);
                   add(sp);
          }
}
Using the Mouse
------------------
MouseListener Which handles mouse clicks,presses, and releases as well as instances when the mouse enters a component and then leaves it,
And MouseMotionListener, which handles mouse movements and drag operation.

Methods of the MouseListener interface.

void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e)
          Called when the mouse has been clicked on a component.
void mouseEntered(MouseEvent e)
          called when the mouse enters a component
void mousExited(MouseEvent e)
          called when the mouse exits a component.
void mousePressed(MouseEvent e)
          called when a mouse button has been pressed on a component
void mouseRelesed(MouseEvent e)
          called when a mouse button has been released on a component.

Methods of MouseMotionListener interface

void mouseDragged(MouseEvent e)
called when a mouse button is pressed on a component and then dragged.
void mouseMoved(MouseEvent e)
          called when the mouse button has been moved over a component(with no buttons down)


To get the current location of the mouse from a MouseEvent object, we can use the getX and getY methods.  To determine which button when pressed, we can use the MouseEvent class’s getModifiers  methods and then And the result with these fields from the InputEvent class:
ALT_GRAPH_MASK
BUTTON1_MASK
CTRL_MASK
SHIFT_MASK
Ex:
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=mouse.class width=200 height=200></applet>
public class mouse extends Applet implements MouseListener,MouseMotionListener
{
          TextField t1;
          public void init(){
                   t1=new TextField(30);
                   add(t1);
                   addMouseListener(this);
                   addMouseMotionListener(this);
          }
          public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e)
          {
                   if((e.getModifiers() & InputEvent.BUTTON1_MASK)==InputEvent.BUTTON1_MASK)
                   {
                             t1.setText("Left mouse button down at :"+e.getX()+","+e.getY());
                   }
                   else
                   {
                             t1.setText("Right mouse button down at :"+e.getX()+","+e.getY());
                   }
          }
          public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e)
          {
                             t1.setText("You clicked the mouse at :"+e.getX()+","+e.getY());
          }
          public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e)
          {
                             t1.setText("The mouse button went up");
          }
          public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent e)
          {
                             t1.setText("The mouse Entered");
          }
          public void mouseExited(MouseEvent e)
          {
          t1.setText("The mouse was exited");
          }
          public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent e)
          {
                   t1.setText("The mouse was dragged");
          }
          public void mouseMoved(MouseEvent e)
          {
                   t1.setText("The mouse was moved");
          }
}



         














Creating Windowed Applications
--------------------------------------------

Frame()       Constructs a new instance of Frame that’s initially invisible.

Frame(String titile)       
          Constructs a new Frame object that’s  invisible, with the given title.

Ex:
import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
class AppFrame extends Frame
{
          public void paint(Graphics g)
          {
                   g.drawString("HELLO FRIENDS",75,100);
          }
}
public class App
{
          public static void main(String args[])
          {
                   AppFrame f=new AppFrame();
                   f.setSize(200,200);

          f.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter(){
                             public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e)
                             {
                                      System.exit(0);}
                             });
                             f.show();

                   }
          }

Clicking the close button has no effect at all.


Understanding Layout Managers
==============================
 Layout:
 ---------
     To arranging the AWT components

     Layout is set by the following method
     void setLayout(LayoutManager layoutobject);
     Here, layoutObj is a reference to the desired layout manager.

     Types:
     ------
     Flow Layout  (Left top right bottom)
     Border Layout  (N,E,S,W,C)
     Grid Layout   (Row & Column manner)
     Card Layout
     Panel   (to group the components)


FlowLayout
=============
FlowLayout is the default layout manager.
FlowLayout()
          creates the default layout, which centers components and leaves five pixels of space between each component.
FlowLayout(int how)
          how each line is aligned.
          valid values for how are as follows:
                   FlowLayout.LEFT
                   FlowLayout.CENTER
                   FlowLayout.RIGHT

FlowLayout(int how,int horz,int vert)

import java.awt.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=flow.class width=200 height=200></applet>
public class flow extends Applet {
          TextField t1,t2,t3;
          public void init(){
                   setLayout(new FlowLayout(FlowLayout.RIGHT));
                   t1=new TextField(10);
                   t2=new TextField(10);
                   t3=new TextField(10);
                   add(t1);
                   add(t2);
                   add(t3);
          }
}
ex:2
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=multi.class width=190 height=200></applet>
public class multi extends Applet implements ActionListener{
          TextField t1,t2,t3;
          Label m;
          Button b1;
          public void init()
          {
                   setLayout(new FlowLayout(FlowLayout.RIGHT));
                   t1=new TextField(10);
                   add(t1);

                   m=new Label("*");
                   add(m);

                   t2=new TextField(10);
                   add(t2);

                   b1=new Button("=");
                   add(b1);
                   b1.addActionListener(this);

                   t3=new TextField(10);
                   add(t3);
          }
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae)
          {
                   if(ae.getSource()==b1)
                   {
                             int product=Integer.parseInt(t1.getText())*Integer.parseInt(t2.getText());
                             t3.setText(String.valueOf(product));
                   }
          }
}

import java.awt.*;
import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
//<applet code="FlowLayoutDemo" width=200 height=200 ></applet>
public class FlowLayoutDemo extends Applet implements ItemListener{
          String msg="";
          Checkbox c1,c2,c3,c4;
          public void init(){
                   setLayout(new FlowLayout(FlowLayout.CENTER));
                   c1=new Checkbox("Windows 98",true);
                   c2=new Checkbox("Windows NT");
                   c3=new Checkbox("Unix");
                   c4=new Checkbox("Linux");

                   add(c1);
                   add(c2);
                   add(c3);
                   add(c4);

                   c1.addItemListener(this);
                   c2.addItemListener(this);
                   c3.addItemListener(this);
                   c4.addItemListener(this);
          }
          public void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent ie){
                   repaint();
          }
          public void paint(Graphics g)
          {
                   msg="Current state";
                   g.drawString(msg,6,80);
                   msg="Windows 98:"+c1.getState();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,100);
                   msg="Windows NT:"+c2.getState();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,120);
                   msg="Unix :"+c3.getState();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,140);
                   msg="Linux:"+c4.getState();
                   g.drawString(msg,6,160);
          }
}
GridLayout
--------------
GridLayout()
GridLayout(int numRows,int numColumns)
GridLayout(int numRows,int numColumns,int horz,int vert)

Ex:
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=multi1.class width=200 height=200></applet>
public class multi1 extends Applet implements ActionListener{
          TextField t1,t2,t3;
          Label m;
          Button b1;
          public void init()
          {
                   setLayout(new GridLayout(5,1));
                   t1=new TextField(10);
                   add(t1);

                   m=new Label("*",Label.CENTER);
                   add(m);

                   t2=new TextField(10);
                   add(t2);

                   b1=new Button("=");
                   add(b1);
                   b1.addActionListener(this);

                   t3=new TextField(10);
                   add(t3);
          }
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae)
          {
                   if(ae.getSource()==b1)
                   {
                             int product=Integer.parseInt(t1.getText())*Integer.parseInt(t2.getText());
                             t3.setText(String.valueOf(product));
                   }
          }
}

import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
//<applet code=GridLayoutDemo height=200 width=200></applet>
public class GridLayoutDemo extends Applet{
          static final int n=4;
          public void init(){
                   setLayout(new GridLayout(n,n));
                   setFont(new Font("SansSerif",Font.BOLD,20));
                   for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
                             for(int j=0;j<n;j++){
                                      int k=i*n+j;
                                      if(k>0)
                                      add(new Button(""+k));
                             }
                   }
          }
}
BorderLayout
---------------
BorderLayout()
BorderLayout(int horz,int vert)
          To specify the horizontal and vertical space left between components in horz and vert, respectively.
          BorderLayout.CENTER
          BorderLayout.EAST
          BorderLayout.NORTH
          BorderLayout.SOUTH
          BorderLayout.WEST

          void add(Component combObj, Object region);
          compObj is the component to be added, and region specifies where the component will be added.

          import java.awt.*;
          import java.awt.event.*;
          import java.applet.*;
          //<applet code=BorderLayoutDemo width=200 height=200></applet>
          public class BorderLayoutDemo extends Applet{
                   public void init()
                   {
                             setLayout(new BorderLayout());
                             add(new Button("This is across the top."),BorderLayout.NORTH);
                             add(new Label("The footer message might go here."),BorderLayout.SOUTH);
                             add(new Button("Rigth"),BorderLayout.EAST);
                             add(new Button("Left"),BorderLayout.WEST);

                             String val="That's why TextPad is so popular. "+"\nWhether you simply need a powerful replacement for Notepad,"+"\n a tool for editing your web pages, or "+"\na programming IDE, TextPad does what you want"+"\n, the way you would expect.";


                             add(new TextArea(val),BorderLayout.CENTER);
                   }
          }
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Using Insets
---------------
Insets(int top,int left,int bottom,int right)
The amount of space between the container and its enclosing window.
Insets getInsets()

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=Inset width=200 height=200></applet>
public class Inset extends Applet{
          public void init()
          {
                   setBackground(Color.green);
                   setLayout(new BorderLayout());
                   add(new Button("This is across the top."),BorderLayout.NORTH);
                   add(new Label("The footer message might go here."),BorderLayout.SOUTH);
                   add(new Button("Rigth"),BorderLayout.EAST);
                   add(new Button("Left"),BorderLayout.WEST);

                   String val="That's why TextPad is so popular. "+"\nWhether you simply need a powerful replacement for Notepad,"+"\n a tool for editing your web pages, or "+"\na programming IDE, TextPad does what you want"+"\n, the way you would expect.";


                   add(new TextArea(val),BorderLayout.CENTER);
          }
          //add insets
          public Insets getInsets()
          {
                   return new Insets(10,10,10,10);
          }
}
--------------

----------------
CardLayout
----------------
The CardLayout class is unique among the other layout managers in that it stores several different layouts.

CardLayout()
CardLayout(int horz,int vert)

Use of card layout requires a bit more work than the other layouts.The cards are typically  held in an object of type Panel.  This panel must have CardLayout selected as its layout manager.
adding cards to a panel:
void add(Component panelObj,Object name);
name is a string that specifies the name of the card whose panel is specified by panelObj.

void first(Container deck)
void last(Container deck)
void next(Container deck)
void previous(Container deck)
void show(Container deck,String cardName)
The show() method displays the card whose name is passed  in cardName.


import java.awt.*;
import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
//<applet code=CardLayoutDemo height=100 width=100></applet>
public class CardLayoutDemo extends Applet implements  ActionListener,MouseListener{
          Checkbox c1,c2,c3,c4;
          Panel p1;
          CardLayout cardLO;
          Button b1,b2;
          public void init()
          {
                   b1=new Button("Windows");
                   b2=new Button("Others");
                   add(b1);
                   add(b2);

                   cardLO=new CardLayout();
                   p1=new Panel();
                   p1.setLayout(cardLO);//set panel layout to card layout

                   c1=new Checkbox("Window 98",true);
                   c2=new Checkbox("Window NT");
                   c3=new Checkbox("Unix");
                   c4=new Checkbox("Linux");

                   //add windows check box to a panel
                   Panel win=new Panel();
                   win.add(c1);
                   win.add(c2);

                   //add other OS check boxes to a panel
                   Panel other=new Panel();
                   other.add(c3);
                   other.add(c4);

                   //add panels to card deck panel
                   p1.add(win,"Windows");
                   p1.add(other,"Other");

                   //add cards to main applet panel
                   add(p1);

                   b1.addActionListener(this);
                   b2.addActionListener(this);

                   addMouseListener(this);
          }
          //Cycle through panels.
          public void mousePressed(MouseEvent me){
                   cardLO.next(p1);
          }
          //provide empty implementations for the other MouseListener methods
          public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent me){}
          public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent me){}
          public void mouseExited(MouseEvent me){}
          public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent me){}
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae){
                   if(ae.getSource()==b1)
                   {
                             cardLO.show(p1,"Windows");
                   }
                   else
                   {
                             cardLO.show(p1,"Other");
                   }
          }
}

  KeyEvent Class:
     ---------------
     types of keyEvent:
     --------------
     KEY_PRESSED
     KEY_RELEASED
     KEY_TYPED


     OTHER KEY Constants:
     --------------------
     VK_0 through VK_9
     VK_A through VK_Z

     VK_ENTER
     VK_ESCAPE
     VK_CANCEL
     VK_UP
     VK_DOWN
     VK_LEFT
     VK_RIGHT
     VK_PAGEDOWN
     VK_PAGEUP
     VK_SHIFT
     VK_ALT
     VK_CONTROL

     VK -Virtual Key code
         independent of any modifiers such as Ctrl,Alt and shift

    Methods:
    ---------
    char getKeyChar();
    int getKeyCode();


    KeyListener:
    --------------
    void keyPressed(KeyEvent ke)
    void keyReleased(KeyEvent ke)
    void keyTyped(KeyEvent ke)

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
/*<applet code=SimpleKey width=300 height=100></applet>*/
public class SimpleKey extends Applet implements KeyListener{
          String msg="";
          int X=20,Y=30;//output coordinates

          public void init(){
                   addKeyListener(this);
                   requestFocus();//request input focus
          }
          public void keyPressed(KeyEvent ke){
                   showStatus("Key Down");
          }
          public void keyReleased(KeyEvent ke){
                   showStatus("Key Up");
          }
          public void keyTyped(KeyEvent ke){
                   msg+=ke.getKeyChar();
                   repaint();
          }
          //Display keystrokes.
          public void paint(Graphics g){
                   g.drawString(msg,X,Y);
          }
}

we want to handle the special keys, such as the arrow or function keys, we need to respond to them within the keyPressed() handler.
Demonstrate some virtual key codes.
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=KeyEvents width=300 height=200></applet>
public class KeyEvents extends Applet implements KeyListener{
          String msg="";
          int x=10,y=20;
          public void init(){
                   addKeyListener(this);
                   requestFocus();
          }
          public void keyPressed(KeyEvent ke){
                   showStatus("Key Down");

                   int key=ke.getKeyCode();
                   switch(key){
                             case KeyEvent.VK_F1:
                                      msg+="<F1>";
                                      break;
                             case KeyEvent.VK_F2:
                                      msg+="<F2>";
                                      break;
                             case KeyEvent.VK_F3:
                                      msg+="<F3>";
                                      break;
                             case KeyEvent.VK_PAGE_DOWN:
                                      msg+="<PgDn>";
                                      break;
                             case KeyEvent.VK_PAGE_UP:
                                                                   msg+="<PgUp>";
                                      break;
                             case KeyEvent.VK_LEFT:
                                      msg+="<Left Arrow>";
                                      break;
                             case KeyEvent.VK_RIGHT:
                                      msg+="<Right Arrow>";
                                      break;
                             }
                             repaint();
                   }
                   public void keyReleased(KeyEvent ke){
                             showStatus("Key Up");
                   }
                   public void keyTyped(KeyEvent ke){
                             msg+=ke.getKeyChar();
                             repaint();
                   }
                   public void paint(Graphics g){
                             g.drawString(msg,x,y);
                   }
          }


Menu Bars  and Menu
A menu bar contains one or more Menu objects.  Each Menu object contains a list of MenuItem objects.  Each MenuItem object represents something that can be selected by the user.  Since Menu is a subclass of MenuItem a hierarchy of nested sunmenus can be created.  It is possible to include checkable menu items.
These are menu options of type CheckboxMenuItem and will hava a check mark next to them when they are selected.

Constructors of Menu:
--------------------
Menu();                - creates an empty menu.
Menu(String optionname);
Menu(String optionname,boolean removable);
Here, optionName specifies the name of the menu selection.  If removable is true, the pop-up menu can be removed and allowed to float free.

Constructors of MenuItem:
--------------------------
MenuItem();
MenuItem(String itemname);
MenuItem(String itemname,MenuShortcut keyAccel);

itemname is the name shown in the menu, and keyAccel is the menu shortcut for this item.

Menuitem can be disable or enabled by
----------
void setEnabled(boolean enabledflag);

We can determine an item's status by calling isEnabled().
boolean isEnabled()

name of the menuitem can be changed by
-------------------------------
void setLabel(String newname);
String getLabel();

CheckboxMenuItem constructors:
CheckboxMenuItem()
CheckboxMenuItem(String itemName)
CheckboxMenuItem(String itemName,boolean on)

itemName is the name shown in the menu.  Checkable items operate as toggles.
In the first two forms, the checkable entry is unchecked.  In third form, if on is true, the checkable entry is initially checked.  Otherwise, it is cleared.

we have create a menu item, we must add the item to a Menu object by using add().

MenuItem add(MenuItem item)

Menu add(Menu menu);

Each time a menu item is selected, an ActionEvent object is generated.  Each time a check box menu item is checked or unchecked, an ItemEvent object is generated.
We must implement the ActionListener and ItemListener interfaces in order to handle these menu events.

import java.awt.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=MenuDemo width=200 height=200></applet>
class win1 extends Frame implements ActionListener,ItemListener
{
          MenuBar mb;
          MenuItem f1,f2,f3,f4,f5,e1,e2,e3,e4;
          Menu file,edit;
          CheckboxMenuItem debug,test;
          String msg="";

          win1(String tit)
          {
                   super(tit);
                   //setLayout(new GridLayout(1,1));
                   setSize(400,400);
                   mb=new MenuBar();
                   file=new Menu("File");

                   f1=new MenuItem("New");
                   f2=new MenuItem("Open");
                   f3=new MenuItem("Close");
                   f4=new MenuItem("-");
                   f5=new MenuItem("Quit");
                   file.add(f1);
                   file.add(f2);
                   file.add(f3);
                   file.add(f4);
                   file.add(f5);
                   mb.add(file);
                   edit=new Menu("Edit");
                   e1=new MenuItem("Copy");
                   e2=new MenuItem("Cut");
                   e3=new MenuItem("Paste");
                   e4=new MenuItem("-");
                   edit.add(e1);
                   edit.add(e2);
                   edit.add(e3);
                   edit.add(e4);
                   Menu sub=new Menu("Special");
                   MenuItem s1,s2,s3;
                   s1=new MenuItem("First");
                   s2=new MenuItem("Second");
                   s3=new MenuItem("Third");
                   sub.add(s1);
                   sub.add(s2);
                   sub.add(s3);
                   edit.add(sub);
                   //these are checkable menu items
                   debug=new CheckboxMenuItem("Debug");
                   test=new CheckboxMenuItem("Testing");
                   edit.add(debug);
                   edit.add(test);




                   f1.addActionListener(this);
                   f2.addActionListener(this);
                   f3.addActionListener(this);
                   f4.addActionListener(this);
                   f5.addActionListener(this);
                   e1.addActionListener(this);
                   e2.addActionListener(this);
                   e3.addActionListener(this);
                   e4.addActionListener(this);
                   s1.addActionListener(this);
                   s2.addActionListener(this);
                   s3.addActionListener(this);
                   debug.addItemListener(this);
                   test.addItemListener(this);


                   mb.add(edit);

                   setMenuBar(mb);
          }
          public void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent ie){
                             repaint();
          }
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae){
                   String msg="You Selected";
                   String arg=(String)ae.getActionCommand();
                   if(arg.equals("New"))
                             msg+="New";
                             this.msg=msg;
                             if(arg.equals("Open"))
                                                          msg+="Open";
                             this.msg=msg;
                             repaint();
                   }

          public void paint(Graphics g)
          {
                   g.drawString(msg,10,200);
                   if(debug.getState())
                             g.drawString("Debug is on.",10,220);
                   else
                             g.drawString("Debut is off.",10,220);
                   if(test.getState())
                             g.drawString("Testing is on.",10,240);
                   else
                             g.drawString("Testing is off",10,240);
          }
}

public class MenuDemo extends Applet implements ActionListener
{
          win1 w;
          Button b1,b2;
          public void init()
          {
                   b1=new Button("Show window");
                   b2=new Button("Hidewindow");
                   w=new win1("My Own Window");
                   add(b1);
                   add(b2);
                   w.setSize(300,200);
                   b1.addActionListener(this);
                   b2.addActionListener(this);
          }
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae)
          {
                   if(ae.getSource()==b1)
                             w.setVisible(true);
                   else if(ae.getSource()==b2)
                             w.setVisible(false);
                   }
          }
          ================================================




Pop-Up Menus
------------------
PopupMenu()       Create a new pop-up menu.
PopupMenu(String)       Create a new pop-up menu with the given name.
void  show(Componenet origin,int x,int y)
          shows the pop-up menu at the x,y position.


Awtprg.popmenu
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.applet.*;
//<applet code=popmenu.class width=200 height=200></applet>
public class popmenu extends Applet implements ActionListener,MouseListener
{
          Label l1;
          PopupMenu pop;
          MenuItem red,green,blue;
          public void init(){
                   pop=new PopupMenu("Menu");
                   red=new MenuItem("RED");
                   red.addActionListener(this);
                   green=new MenuItem("GREEN");
                   green.addActionListener(this);
                   blue=new MenuItem("BLUE");
                   blue.addActionListener(this);

                   pop.add(red);
                   pop.add(green);
                   pop.addSeparator();
                   pop.add(blue);
                   add(pop);
                   l1=new Label("Hello Friends");
                   add(l1);
                   addMouseListener(this);
          }
          public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e)
          {
                   if(e.getModifiers()!=0){
                             pop.show(this,e.getX(),e.getY());
                   }

          }
          public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e){         }
          public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e){}
          public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent e) {}
          public void mouseExited(MouseEvent e){}
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae)
          {
                   if(ae.getSource()==red)
                   {
                             l1.setBackground(Color.red);
                             l1.setText("You chose red");
                   }
                   else if(ae.getSource()==green)
                   {
                             l1.setBackground(Color.green);
                             l1.setText("You chose green");
                   }
                   else if(ae.getSource()==blue){
                             l1.setBackground(Color.blue);
                             l1.setText("You chose blue");
                   }
                   }
          }












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